Tuesday, 24 July 2012

The "Libbre David 37" quote

A quote you often see floating around the net, and variations of I've found in publications as early as 1895, is:
To communicate anything to a Goy about our religious relations would be equal to the killing of all Jews, for if the Goyim knew what we teach about them they would kill us openly. ... If a Jew be called upon to explain any part of the rabbinic books, he ought to give only a false explantion. Whoever will violate this order shall be put to death.
— Libbre David 37.
Freemasons, philosemities and even "neo-fascists" have made pitiful attempts at dismissing this quote as a fraud, and the book it is from as non-existent, but serious attempts—dating back to 1920—have also been made to debunk the quote. I intend to prove in this article that these supposedly serious attempts, have been so flawed, that they are either completely worthless, or in others cases—and far more damningly—that they were attempts at deception.

Rabbi David Ben Samuel HaLevi, aka the TaZ (1586 - 1667) who wrote a book
entitled Dibre David, and his descendent, American actress Gwyneth Paltrow
Firstly, Libbre David is an often repeated spelling error, it's Dibre David (Words of David), other seemingly perfectly acceptable spellings of either words are Divre and Dawid). There are at least eight or nine* books entitled Dibre David (spelling varies) which were published prior to the Dibre David quote first appearing in "antisemitic" literature in the late 19th century. They are:

  1. Rabbi David Ben Aryeh Loen of Lida, Lithuanian (died c.1698), wrote a book called Dibre Dawid published in Poland in 1723 or 1724, according to The Jewish Encyclopedia (1903. Vol.4. p.461). His wikipedia entry, which in turn cites the Encyclopedia Judaica (which I personally can't check) states this rabbi's name was David ben Aryeh Leib (1650 - 1696), and that he wrote a book called "Divrei David, 1671". He was the chief Ashkenazi rabbi in Amsterdam for a period, where he published several books. This book indicates that he may of been the son of the rabbi I've listed immediately below, the TaZ, who is also credited by The Jewish Encyclopedia as writing a book entitled Dibre Dawid.

  2. Rabbi David Ben Samuel HaLevi known as the TaZ (1586 - 1667) of Poland, wrote a book called Dibre Dawid or Dibre David, which was a "supercommentary on Rashi's Exegesis to the Pentateuch," and was was posthumously published in 1689, according to The Jewish Encyclopedia (1903. Vol.4. p.469), and the Menorah Institue for Research and Publishing of Manuscripts and Rare Books Inc. (New York).

  3. Rabbi Aaron Ben Jacob HaLevi Horowitz of Russia (lived during the 2nd half of the 17th century), he revised Rabbi David Ben Samuel HaLevi's Dibre Dawid (immediately above), adding his own commentary regarding all of the Book of Genesis, and a letter justifying his work. According to the The Jewish Encyclopedia (1904. Vol.6. p.465

  4. David Meldola (1714 - c.1818) wrote a book called Dibre Dawid,  published in Amsterdam in 1752 or 1753, according to The Jewish Encyclopedia (1904. Vol.8. p.453). The book is also mentioned by the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 19th Annual Report. 1892. p.2986, and by Professor Herman Strack (see below).

  5. Isaac Cohen Belinfante (died 1781) of Amsterdam, wrote a book called Dibre David, according to The Jewish Encyclopedia (1902, Vol.2, p.660).

  6. Rabbi David ben Solomon ibn Abi Zimra or Zamiro, known as the Radbaz (c.1479 - 1573), wrote a book called Dibre David, eventually published in Livorno, Italy in 1828, according to The Jewish Encyclopedia (1903. Vol.4. p.469). The "Radbaz" was a child expellee from Spain, he became Chief Rabbi of Egypt, and was the teacher of Isaac Luria, who would later develop the horrendously racist form of Jewish mysticism known as Lurianic Kabbalah, which teaches Jews how to become "master of the terrestrial world." This book can be downloaded for free here (in Hebrew), here is page 37 from the second part of the book (there is no page 37 to the first part [see JE link for contents of the book], according to an Orthodox Jew and aspiring rabbi who frequents Yahoo Answers).

  7. David Ginsburg (who might have been baptised-Jew Christian David Ginsburg 1831 - 1914, see his article in The Jewish Encyclopedia 1905. Vol.5. p.669) wrote a book called Dibre David, according to Hermann Strack (Jüdische Geheimgesetze?. p.6)

  8. Rabbi David (Tebele) Ephrati (1850 - 1884) of Frankfurt, wrote a book called Dibre Dawid, published in 1875, according to The Jewish Encyclopedia (1903. Vol.5. p.193)

  9. Rabbi David Cohen (1902) of Djerba (a Tunisian island), wrote a book called Dibre David (Words of David), according to The Jewish Encyclopedia (1903, Vol.4, p.146). I believe Rabbi Cohen was still alive when this volume of the JE was published, they don't make it very clear (unless I've missed the key to deciphering their listings).
* The potential 9th is number 3 in my list. The title of Rabbi Horowitz's book is not given in The Jewish Encyclopedia.


Following are the earliest variations of the Dibre David quote I've found in non-Jewish sources:

In an article entitled Juifs et Chrétiens á Vienne (Jews and Christians in Vienne) by M. A. Kannengieser, which appeared in the French monthly magazine Le Correspondant in December 1895, it states:
Communiquer à un non-Juif, est-il écrit dans le Dibre David, quelques-uns de nos livres de religion, c'est en quelque sorte tuer tous les Juifs, car si les non-Juifs savaient ce que nous enseignons contre eux, ils nous assommeraient tous.
Translation (improvements welcomed):
Communicating to a non-Jew, it is written in the Dibre David, some of our books of religion, is tantamount to killing all Jews. For if the Gentiles knew what we teach against them, they would slaughter all of us.

In the August 1912 edition of the German arts magazine Der Kunstwart, in an article entitled Aussprache Mit Juden (Discussion with the Jews), it states:
Talmud, Dibre David § 37:  Einem Nichtjuden etwas aus unsern Religionslehren mitteilen, ist soviel als alle Juden töten; tut man das Erstere, so muß notwendig das Letztere darauf folgen. Denn wüßten die Nichtjuden, was wir gegen sie lehren, würden sie uns dann nicht alle totschlagen?
Translation (improvements welcomed):
Talmud, Dibre David Section 37: Passing on anything of our religious doctrines to a non-Jew is tantamount to killing all Jews; if the former is done, the latter must be the necessary consequence. For if the non-Jews knew our doctrines against them, would they not then slaughter us all?

In the July 1, 1924 (Vol. I. No. 12. p.7) edition of the New York Protestant magazine The American Standard, it states:
To communicate anything to a Gentile about our religious relations would be equal to the killing of all the Jews; for if the Gentiles knew what we teach about them, they would kill us openly. If a Jew will be called to explain any part of the rabbinic books, he only ought to give a false explanation, that he might not, by behaving differently, become an accomplice in betraying these informations. Who will violate this order shall be put to death." — Libbre David, 37


I have discovered five—hailed as highly authoritative—debunkings of the Dibre David quotation, the first (1920) by a German Christian scholar of Judaism, and the other four (1926, 1939, 1941 & 1970) by Jews. Two of the supposedly highly authoritative Jewish debunkers, rely 100% on the Christian scholar's original effort, no further research was done by them whatsoever. Another Jew even proves, but without acknowledging the fact, that the Christian scholar was substantially wrong in his assertion, but then blatantly lies to cover up for the mistake. The fifth and final one was by a Jewish communist, he neither relied on the Christian, nor did he lie, but his worthless debunking only shows that he had the least knowledge of Rabbinical books out of all the hailed debunkers.

Following are full details of each of the five supposedly authoritative debunkings of the Dibre David quotation:


German Protestant Professor Hermann Strack (1848 - 1922), was honoured with an entry in The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906. Vol.11. p.559), he was also a Consulting Editor to the very same encyclopedia. His entry advises that Strack was "the foremost Christian authority in Germany on Talmudic and rabbinic literature", and "the champion of the Jews". Strack authored many tracts in which he pooh-poohed "antisemitic" claims of Jewish ritual murder, and the alleged contents of Rabbinical literature. But he may of lost a few Jewish admirers when he conceded that Jews may have occasional crucified a Christian child out of hatred for Christianity—but in a purely non-ritualistic manner. In 1920, two years prior to his death, Strack published a 46 page pamphlet entitled Jüdische Geheimgesetze? (Secret Jewish Laws?), in which he wrote:

(this I've manually copied this from the Fraktur alphabet it was published in, apologies for any errors, but the original page can be read here) 
Das Flugblatt 5 des Ausschusses für Volksaustlärung [!]. Landesstelle Mecklenburg in Rostock, unlängst auch in Berlin verteilt, schreibt: „Geheim sind die Lehren der Juden — Talmud, Schulchan Arukh und die rabbinischen Schriften — bis auf den heutigen Tag. Warum? In Libere [of] Dawid* steht geschrieben: „Ein Jude ist verpflichtet, einem Nichtjuden, wenn er über eine Stelle der rabbinischen Schriften gefragt wird, diese falsch auszulegen : denn wüßten die Nichtjuden, was wir gegen sie lehren, würden sie uns denn nicht alle totschlagen?"
* [Andre antisemitisch „Gelehrte" und Flugblatt haben „Libre David" oder „Dibre David", letzteres auch mit dem Zusatz „§ 37". In dem so betitelten Buch« des David ben Rafhael Meldola, Amsterdam 1753, ist weder der oben angeführte Satz noch etwas Nehnlichet zu finden. Auch zwei andere so benannte Bücher (David ben Salomo abi Vimra, Livorno 1828; David Ginzburg, Frankfurt A.M.) enthalten nichts Hierhergehöriges. — Theod. Fritsch, Beweis-Material. ». Aufl.. S. 204 (8. Aufl.. G, 161 s.) sagt, der angeführte Satz stehe in „einem lemberger hebräischen Journal"! H. Str.]
Translation (improvements welcomed):
A pamphlet (no. 5) published by the Committee on Volksaustlärung (Volk = the people/folk ; Aufklärung = clarification) [!], at their regional office in Rostock, Mecklenburg, was recently distributed in Berlin. It stated: "Secret teachings of the Jews to the present day - Talmud, Shulchan Arukh, and the rabbinic writings. It claims: "It is written in Libre David*, Whenever a Gentile asks a Jew for information about a passage in the rabbinical writings it is the duty of the Jew to expound it falsely; for if the Gentiles knew what we are teaching against them would they not kill us all?" "
* [Other anti-Semitic "scholarly" leaflets cite "David Libre" or "Dibre David", the latter also with the addition of "number 37". In the so-titled book (Dibre David) by David Raphael ben Meldola, Amsterdam, 1753, neither of the claimed sentences, nor anything like them, are found. Two other books entitled Dibre David (by David ben Solomon Abi Vimra, Livorno 1828, and David Ginzburg, Frankfurt AM) contain nothing asserted here. Theodor Fritsch, The Evidence Against Yahew (3rd edition. p.204, 8th edition p.161) says that the quotation appeared "in a Lemberger Hebrew Journal"! H. Strack]

Below is a facsmile of part of the footnotes to an obituary for Rabbi Raphael Meldola of Mansell Street, London, which appeared in The Gentleman's Magazine, October 1828 edition. As you can see, a book entitled Dibré David is cited twice, this is the Dibre Dawid which appears as No.4 in my list, and was authored by a David Meldola, the grandfather of Rabbi Raphael Meldola of Mansell Street, London. This was also one of the three books called Dibre David, Strack claimed to have checked for the quotation.


Strack listed three separate books entitled Dibre David, all of which appear on my list of Dibre David books (for number 7, I only have Strack's say-so as "evidence" it ever existed, I can find no further reference to such a book). As I mentioned above, Strack was a Consulting Editor on The Jewish Encyclopedia, which was published between 1901 - 1906, and having searched for his name in the online version, Strack's work is quoted as a source in more than 60 separate articles. As already proven, The Jewish Encyclopedia lists at least seven books entitled Dibre David (spelling varies), yet it's "Consulting Editor" only checked for the infamous Dibre David quotation in only three books of that name. But the most damning evidence against rabbinical apologist Prof. Strack, is the absence from his list of Dibre David books, the one authored by the TaZ (no. 2 in my list). It seems highly improbable that "the foremost Christian authority in Germany on Talmudic and rabbinic literature" was not aware of the TaZ. I will give full explanation of why this is so in my Conclusion. 

(Stract's 1920 paper Jüdische Geheimgesetze? can be downloaded from Goethe University's website)


Austrian politician Rabbi Joseph S. Bloch published Israel und die Völke (Israel and the Nations) in 1922. The book is described by its author as the "Handbook of Jewish Apologetics", and it's 500-plus pages of supposed refutations of all the antisemitic "canards" about the Talmud, rabbinical literature, ritual murder, etc., etc.

Rabbi Bloch had the following to say on the Dibre David quote:
A pamphlet (number 5) originating in Mecklenburg states: "It is written in Libre David, Whenever a Gentile asks a Jew for information about a passage in the rabbinical writings it is the duty of the Jew to expound it falsely; for if the Gentiles knew what we are teaching against them would they not kill us all?"
Libre David, of course, makes no sense; such a Hebrew word does not exist. Evidently is meant Dibre David. There are, it is true, three Hebrew books of this title; one of them printed in the 18th century in Amsterdam, the other two (of the 19th century) published in Leghorn and in Frankfurt respectively. Strack obtained all the three books and decalres briefly and to the point: there is nothing of the kind to be found in any of them.
— Bloch. Joseph S. Translated by: Kellner, Leon. Revised by: Schneiderman, Harry. Israel and the Nations. Berlin: Benjamin Harz Verlag. 1927. p.4


Bloch clearly thought highly of himself. In the the introduction to his 1922 book Israel and the Nations, he reproduces an 1893 letter he had received from Dr. Adolf Jellinek of the Vienna Jewish Congress, asking that he "the Hercules of the anti-Semitic Augean stable" who "is in possession of the necessary literary ability", "to work up the subject matter of Jewish apologetics into literary shape", so that "the anti-Semitic leaders be exposed in all their wretched nakedness."

As you can read from what Bloch wrote about the Dibre David quote, the "Hercules" of Jewish apologia, relied absolutely on a goy (Hermann Strack), albeit a righteous goy, whose short, sweet and thoroughly unthorough explanation of the falseness of the Dibre David quote had been published two years prior. Along with not even pretending to add any of his own personal knowledge on books called Dibre David, Bloch also fails to mention that Strack excluded Dibre David by the great TaZ (no. 2 in my list of Dibre David books), and insists there were only three books of this name, when in fact there were far more than three.


Rabbi Ben Zion Bosker (1907 - 1984) wrote in 1967, about how Jews call the awaited time of their messiah, the "new world order." But three decades earlier, when he was in his early thirties, he too wrote an article which supposedly debunked antisemitic claims about Talmudic and Rabbinic literature. Rabbi Bosker stated of the Dibre David quote in his article Talmudic Forgeries (1939 or earlier):
Repeatedly, for example, Libbre David 37 is cited as the source for the statement: "If a Jew be called upon to explain any part of the Rabbinic books, he ought to give only a false explanation. Whoever will violate this order shall be put to death." There is no such Hebrew word as Libbre. What is obviously meant is Dibre David. It is interesting that the corruption Libbre David follows the misprint of the German original (a pamphlet quoted by Bloch, Israel and the Nations, page 4). Several books by the name of Dibre David were published, the earliest in 1671 and some as late as the nineteenth century. Strack (Geheimgesetze, page 6) took the trouble to search all books by that name and pronounced the text a complete and unadulterated forgery. No such passage or any passage expressing such sentiments is to be found in any of these books.
Talmudic Forgeries by Ben Zion Bosker. Contemporary Jewish Record. July-August 1939, Volume II, No.4 p.15.


As you can tell, Bosker relied on both Strack and Bloch's books, but Bosker evidently noted the large mistake made by Strack and perpetuated by Bloch i.e. that there were only "three Hebrew books of this title, so Bosker simply increased it to "several." He correctly asserted, "the earliest in 1671 and some as late as the nineteenth century" were published, but he then lied by claiming "Strack ... took the trouble to search all books by that name", which anyone who checks his cited sources would, as I did, immediately discover is a blatant lie. Bosker also incorrectly claims that Strack wrote that the Mecklenburg pamphlet No. 5, stated the book was entitled Libbre David, when he clearly did not, Strack claimed that it read "Libere [of] David", and others antisemitic pamphlets cited "David Libre" or "Dibre David".


The 1941 Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, also relying totally on Hermann Strack and Rabbi Bloch, states of the Libbre David 37 quote:
To communicate anything to a Goy about our religious relations would be equal to the killing of all Jews, for if the Goyim knew what we teach about them they would kill us openly. ... If a Jew be called upon to explain any part of the rabbinic books, he ought to give only a false explantion. Whoever will violate this order shall be put to death.
Reference, Libbre David 37. 

The whole passage is a brazen forgery. There is no such work as Libbre David. The closest possible Hebrew title to this alleged work is Dibre David, which is cited in some anti-Semitic literature as the reference. There are three Hebrew books that bear this title: the Christian scholar Hermann Strack searched all three and found not the slightest trace of such statements.
The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, Volume III. New York:  The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia Press. 1941. pp.4-5.


The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia simply repeats what Strack implied, and Bloch brazenly asserted as fact: "There are three Hebrew books that bear this title". As already proven—and what the liar Rabbi Bosker knew full well—there are far more than 3, there are at least 7, possibly 9 or more "books that bear this title". Unlike The Jewish Encyclopedia, which can be searched for free online, the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia is still in copyright, and a digital edition costs (U.S.) $89.00. It would be interesting to see if they too list more than 3 books entitled Dibre David, but I'm not prepared to pay that much to find out. I have already proven conclusively that they were completely wrong in their assertion that "There are three Hebrew books that bear this title".


In 1970 American Jew Morris Kominsky (1901 - 1975) published The Hoaxers: Plain Liars, Fancy Liars and Damned Liars. Kominsky was a life-long communist, here is an article he wrote in 1920 for the communist newspaper The New York Call. In 1938 he ran for governor of Rhode Island on the communist ticket—he lost. In 1961 The Committee on Un-American Activities found that Kominsky and fellow "highly indoctrinated Communist agitators" had been responsible for inflaming racial hatred between local residents and Jewish owners of resort properties around Lake Elsinore in Southern California. The Attorney General's office had investigated numerous claims made by the Kominsky and his "fellow travellers" and found them to be untrue or exaggerated. 

Kominsky's 1970 book The Hoaxers, is predominately about "lies" told about communists or communism, but he also apparently exposes several lies told about Negroes and Jews. He attacks the four page c.1952 pamphlet Freemasonry is Jewry, written by Lyrl Clark Van Hyning of Chicago, who was the president of the anti-war, anti-Communist, anti-Jewish "We, the Mothers" group in the early 1940s. Kominsky states of Van Hyning's pamphlet, which includes the Libbre David quote:
"To communicate anything to a goy about our religious relations would be equal to the killing of all Jews, for if the goyim knew what we teach about them they would kill us openly. (Libbre David 37)."
Libbre David 37. This is a complete fabrication. No such book exists in the Talmud or in the entire Jewish literature. Here again there is some internal evidence of the work of the fabricator. Libbre is probably a corruption of Liber, which is part of "Liber David", the Latin for Book of David (the psalms of the Bible). [pages 171 - 172] 
"If a Jew be called upon to explain any part of the rabbinic books, he ought to give only a false explanation. Who ever will violate this order shall be put to death. (Libbre David 37)."
Libbre David 37. There is no such book, as previously noted. [page 175]
Kominsky, Morris. The Hoaxers: Plain Liars, Fancy Liars and Damned Liars. Massachusetts: Branden Press, Inc. 1970.


To give "comrade Morris Kominsky" his due, he didn't rely on Strack's 1920 effort—probably because he'd never heard of it—nor does display ignorance in a field in which he claims expertise, à la Rabbi Bloch, and nor did he knowingly write falsehoods in the manner Rabbi Bosker. Kominsky was correct, there is no book called Libbre David, but his theory about the Book of Psalms is too daft to comment further on. 


Steven Speilberg with Gwyneth Paltrow, the descendant of the TaZ

To summarise, Strack only checked three of the eight (possibly more) books called Dibre David, Bloch was ignorant for claiming there were only three books, and Bosker outright lied when he claimed Strack had checked a book entitled Dibre David published in 1671 for the quote, when Strack had done no such thing. The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia should have known better, and Comrade Kominsky didn't know much at all.

What I find intriguing is that none of these scholars of Judaism mentioned the book Dibre Dawid by clearly the most famous of the authors who penned a book with that title. The TaZ (no.2 in my list at top of this post). 

Rabbi David Ben Samuel HaLevi (1586 - 1667) is known as the TaZ after his most famous book Turei Zahav ("Rows of Gold"). He is hailed by Chabad Lubavitch as "among the greatest of our illustrious Talmudists." Even in the 17th century, his brother said of him: "Rabbi David Halevi's name spread over all countries and G-d helped his work to worldwide recognition and acceptance ...", but supposedly none of the Jewish scholars mentioned above had even heard of his book Dibre Dawid.

The TaZ's Dibre Dawid, is a "super-commentary" (a commentary on a commentary) on Rashi's commentary on the Torah (the first 5 books of the Old Testament). Rashi was the immensely influential 11th century French rabbi, whose explanations on the Talmud have been published in every single edition of the Talmud for the last several centuries. The Torah is of course the Written Law, supposedly handed down to Moses by the Jewish god on Mount Sinai. In his commentary on the Torah, Rashi explained the Torah using his knowledge of the Oral Law (the Pharisees' other laws, supposedly passed down from their god at the same time, but not written down to roughly 200AD, now known as the Mishnah, part of the Talmud).

So what could be in the TaZ's Dibre (or Divre) David (or Dawid)? A clue is offer in the The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe, it states in its entry "Poland: Poland Before 1795": 
"Many agreed with Rabbi David ben Shemu’el ha-Levi (Taz) that Poland was a place where “most of the time the gentiles do no harm; on the contrary they do right by Israel” (Divre David; 1689)."
So the TaZ clearly wrote about contemporary gentiles in his book Dibre David on Rashi's commentary on the Torah.

This article has failed to prove whether the Dibre David quote is genuine or not. But I have at least proved that those supposedly authoritative figures who have claimed it is fake, have been guilty of suspiciously shoddy scholarship, and in one case, outright lying. 

As I've already alluded to, I believe the place to look for the quotation would be in Dibre David by Gwyneth Paltrow's ancestor, the TaZ aka Rabbi David Ben Samuel HaLevi, first published in 1689. "WorldCat.org: The World's Largest Library Catalog" states that 17 editions of the book were published between 1882 - 2005, including a 1959 English edition (combined with his more famous book Turei Zahav). The only library I can find which holds that English edition, is the Ostrow Library at the American Jewish University in California, who list the book as "Romanized," and I'd imagine it's also been sanitized. The British Library has an original 1689 edition of Rabbi David Ben Samuel HaLevi's book, and as Jewish scholars have always forgotten to mention this particular book when making their denials, it would surely be the ideal place to check for the still legendary Dibre David quotation.


  1. First class research, Black Rabbit, a job well done!

  2. More on N°. 3: here.

    Also, N°. 6: here.

    N°. 10? David Tewel Katzenellenbogen: here.

    1. Thanks for the reminder, I need to update it with a cut off date. I also found several others published after 1920, e.g.

      But they're just not relevant to this. Nor are massive biographies on all of the authors, not when I link to the JE for them.

  3. What a clown. You wasted all that time and energy for what? You haven't proven the quote exists and in fact you admit that. At most you have proven that A) all debunkers are correct, there is no "Libbre David" B) there ARE 5 books that have a similar title C) 3 of those books do NOT have the quotation. In other words, you haven't done anything. Your comment about a copy of a book surely having been "santized" belies an inherent bias. Instead of taking pot shots at people who were ALL correct and then patting yourself on the back as if you have uncovered some sort of intellectual conspiracy, you ought to actually read the book you INFER actually contains the quotation.

    1. Oh it's you wolfie.

      A. The earlist "antisemitic" sources I found which cite it, call it "Dibre David". "Libbre David" is clearly a spelling mistake.
      B. There at least 8 books published prior to 1895 which are called Dibre David (spelling varies) this title, more have been published since.
      C. More than 3 of these books do not have the quotation

      "Instead of taking pot shots at people who were ALL correct ..." But they weren't, were they.

  4. Excellent work, as always. Here is a tiny correction regarding the Gothic text ; the first line should read :

    Das Flugblatt 5 des Ausschusses für Volksaufklärung

    'Volksaufklaerung' : Volk - the people ('folk'), Aufklaerung - clarification.



    1. Thanks ever so much for pointing out the error. I've amended it now.



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