By Earnest Hooton:
Breed War Strain Out of Germans
Professor Earnest Albert Hooton, Professor of Anthropology at Harvard University is particularly interested in man's biological development. He is the author of Apes, Men, and Morons, published in 1937. His approach to anthropological and social problems is always unorthodox and he likes nothing better then to throw out startling ideas for the sake of discussion they may develop. His contribution to What Are We Going to Do With the Germans? is pitched in that key.
(The following suggestions are offered by a physicial anthropologist who has spent many years in the study of race, nationality, and the relation of individual biology to behavior. However, these suggestions represent no consensus of anthropological opinion; they have not been submitted to any group and have been endorsed by no one. The author, himself, is not fully confident of the practicability of the measures outlined. He merely presents them for discussion.
E. A. H.)
(1) The Behavior of a nation arises from the mass of its population and not from leaders or restricted social classes. National culture, national psychology, national ideals are at once the products of the aggregate of biological units of the population and the influence which tend to select for survival and to exaggerate those biological types of men which most readily conform to national behavioral pattens. Both cultural environment and heredity interact to produce in nations stable and persistent modes of behavior.
(2) Substantial amelioration of national behavior cannot be effected solely by external efforts to change the national culture (form of government, ideologies, religion, education, economies). Biological measures for the bettering of the physical mental, and moral quality of individual human units must also be applied to insure permanent improvement.
(3) To break the vicious cycle of inter-action between a militaristic state and the predatory tendencies of its citizens, the former must be destroyed and the latter neutralized or bred out. Since the state is the mechanism for the operation of group aggressions, its destruction most effectually frustrates such aggressions and at the same time makes it easier to deal with the cultural and biological quality of the population by individuals.
APPLICATION TO POST-WAR GERMANY
To destroy German nationalism and aggressive ideology while retaining and perpetuating desirable German biological and sociological capacities.(1) Execute or imprison for life all leaders of the Nazi party; permanently exile all professional army officers.
(2) For a period of 20 years or more utilize the bulk of the present German army as rehabilitation labor units in devastated areas of the Allied Nations in Europe and elsewhere. These laborers should not be treated as prisoners of war or convicts but as paid employees (supervised and restricted as to movement from the area of their work). They might be allowed the privilege of naturalization upon evidence of good behavior. The single men should be permitted to marry only women of the country of their abode or naturalization.
The families of the men already married should remain in Germany for a period of years, but might eventually be permitted to join the fathers. The latter should not be allowed to return to Germany. The objects of this measure include reduction of the birth rate of "pure" Germans, neutralization of German aggressiveness by outbreeding, and denationalization of indoctrinated individuals.
(3) Break up the German Reich into several states (probably its original component states), permitting each, after a suitable interval of supervision and government by the Allied Nations, to choose its own form of non-Fascist government. The object of this measure is to destroy the national framework of unified German aggression.
(4) During the period of supervision and occupation of the several states by armies and civilian staffs of the Allied Nations, encourage members of these groups to intermarry with the German women and to settle there permanently. During this period encourage also the immigration and settlement in the German states of non-German nationals, especially males.