"The pensive demon's nose would have made him appear to his contemporaries very un-French, a foreigner, if not more probably a Jew. [...]
Significantly, the shape of the demon's head is elongated horizontally rather than vertically, swerving away from the proper perpendicular of the good and the beautiful toward the dark and Semitic. [...]
Faces that take this particular form can be seen in numerous anti-Semitic propaganda images produced in the first half of the nineteenth century, which show the Jew's nose not as the audacious protrusion that would become typical of the late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century anti-Semitic stereotypes, but as an extension of the forehead, making it almost reptilian. [...]
In 1850 Robert Knox linked the Jewish with the African nose: "The African character of the Jew, his muzzle-shaped mouth and face removing him from certain other races ... lips very full, mouth projecting, chin small, and the whole physiognomy, when swarthy, as it often is, has an African look." The prominent mouth of some Jews was considered by some Aryan anthropologists to be due to the presence of black blood. As for the horns, some writers of the period linked the Semitic and the satanic."
"In his Lectures on Architecture where he discusses the chimeras of Notre-Dame, Viollet-le-Duc quotes the twelfth-century abbot of Cluny, Peter the Venerable, who described the civilized, enlightened and tolerant man as one for whom "there is neither Greek nor Jew; male nor female, barbarian, Scythian, bond nor free; but Christ is all and in all." Of course, six centuries later a sense of difference was unavoidable, even for a basically tolerant and progressive mind like Viollet-le-Duc's. What “is all and in all” is no longer a unifying and transcendent God but science, uncomprehending and unsentimental. Perhaps it is best to say that Viollet-le-Duc's dialectical imagination created two distinct and in a sense dialectically opposed images of the cursed race, both of which have their roots in an unfulfilled but always yearning Promethean quest for knowledge. One of these—the predominantly negative image representing the inscrutable, demonic, and despised Jew—became one of the most popular sculptures on the cathedral during the next hundred and fifty years, his racial otherness repressed. The other, more idealized image of the tragic, noble, victimized, exiled, and wandering Jew has been totally forgotten."